Digestive Diseases Dictionary: R to Z
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Damage to the colon from radiation therapy.
Damage to the small intestine from radiation therapy.
Tests to find GI bleeding. Radioactive material is injected to highlight
organs on a special camera. Also called scintigraphy (sihn-TIHG-ruh-fee).
Rapid Gastric Emptying
(RAH-pid GAH-strik EM-tee-ying)
See Dumping Syndrome.
A test that uses a thin tube and balloon to measure pressure and movements
of the rectal and anal sphincter muscles. Usually used to diagnose chronic
constipation and fecal incontinence.
A condition in which the rectum slips so that it protrudes from the
The lower end of the large intestine, leading to the anus.
A condition that occurs when gastric juices or small amounts of food
from the stomach flow back into the esophagus and mouth. Also called regurgitation.
Irritation of the esophagus because stomach contents flow back into
See Crohn's Disease.
The most common cause of infectious diarrhea in the United States, especially
in children under age 2.
A break or tear in any organ or soft tissue.
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A mixture of water, protein, and salts that makes food easy to swallow
and begins digestion.
A bacterium that may cause intestinal infection and diarrhea. See also
A condition that causes small, fleshy swellings in the liver, lungs,
See Lower Esophageal Ring.
See Radionuclide Scans.
A method of stopping upper GI bleeding. A needle is inserted through
an endoscope to bring hardening agents to the place that is bleeding.
A hormone made in the duodenum. Causes the stomach to make pepsin, the
liver to make bile, and the pancreas to make a digestive juice.
The process by which muscles in the intestines move food and wastes
through the body.
Infection with the bacterium Shigella. Usually causes a high
fever, acute diarrhea, and dehydration. See also Gastroenteritis.
Short Bowel Syndrome
(short BAH-wul sin-drohm)
Problems related to absorbing nutrients after removal of part of the
small intestine. Symptoms include diarrhea, weakness, and weight loss.
Also called short gut syndrome.
Short Gut Syndrome
See Short Bowel Syndrome.
A digestive and respiratory disorder of children. Certain digestive
enzymes are missing and white blood cells are few. Symptoms may include
diarrhea and short stature.
The lower part of the colon that empties into the rectum.
Looking into the sigmoid colon and rectum with a flexible or rigid tube,
called a sigmoidoscope.
A special plastic tub. A person sits in a few inches of warm water to
help relieve discomfort of hemorrhoids or anal fissures.
Small Bowel Enema
(smal BAH-wul EN-uh-muh)
X-rays of the small intestine taken as barium liquid passes through
the organ. Also called small bowel follow-through. See also Lower GI Series.
Small Bowel Follow-Through
(smal BAH-wul FAH-loh-throo)
See Small Bowel Enema.
Organ where most digestion occurs. It measures about 20 feet and includes
the duodenum, jejunum, and ileum.
Solitary Rectal Ulcer
(SAH-luh-tair-ee REK-tul UL-sur)
A rare type of ulcer in the rectum. May develop because of straining
to have a bowel movement.
A hormone in the pancreas. Somatostatin helps tell the body when to
make the hormones insulin, glucagon, gastrin, secretin, and renin.
Muscle movements such as those in the colon that cause pain, cramps,
See Irritable Bowel Syndrome (IBS).
A ring-like band of muscle that opens and closes an opening in the body.
An example is the muscle between the esophagus and the stomach known as
the lower esophageal sphincter.
Sphincter of Oddi
(SFEENK-tur uv AH-dee)
The muscle between the common bile duct and pancreatic ducts.
The organ that cleans blood and makes white blood cells. White blood
cells attack bacteria and other foreign cells.
Splenic Flexure Syndrome
(SPLEN-ik FLEK-shur sin-drohm)
A condition that occurs when air or gas collects in the upper parts
of the colon. Causes pain in the upper left abdomen. The pain often moves
to the left chest and may be confused with heart problems.
Tissue in an organ such as the esophagus. Consists of layers of flat,
A condition in which the body cannot absorb fat. Causes a buildup of
fat in the stool and loose, greasy, and foul bowel movements.
See Fatty Liver.
An opening in the abdomen that is created by an operation (ostomy).
Must be covered at all times by a bag that collects stool.
The organ between the esophagus and the small intestine. The stomach
is where digestion of protein begins.
An open sore in the lining of the stomach. Also called gastric ulcer.
The solid wastes that pass through the rectum as bowel movements. Stools
are undigested foods, bacteria, mucus, and dead cells. Also called feces.
An upper GI ulcer from physical injury such as surgery, major burns,
or critical head injury.
The abnormal narrowing of a body opening. Also called stenosis. See
also Esophageal Stricture and Pyloric Stenosis.
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Straining to have a bowel movement. May be painful and continue for
a long time without result.
Total Parenteral Nutrition (TPN)
(TOH-tul puh-REN-tuh-rul noo-TRISH-un)
See Parenteral Nutrition.
Tracheoesophageal Fistula (TEF)
A condition that occurs when there is a gap between the upper and lower
segments of the esophagus. Food and saliva cannot pass through.
The part of the colon that goes across the abdomen from right to left.
An infection caused by unclean food or drink. Often occurs during travel
outside one's own country. See also Gastroenteritis.
A combination of three medicines used to treat Helicobacter pylori
infection and ulcers. Drugs that stop the body from making acid are often
added to relieve symptoms.
A condition of unknown cause. Abnormalities in the lining of the small
intestine prevent the body from absorbing food normally.
See Enteral Nutrition.
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A sore on the skin surface or on the stomach lining.
A serious disease that causes ulcers and irritation in the inner lining
of the colon and rectum. See also Inflammatory Bowel Disease (IBD).
Upper GI Endoscopy
(UH-pur jee-eye en-DAW-skuh-pee)
Looking into the esophagus, stomach, and duodenum with an endoscope.
See also Endoscopy.
Upper GI Series
(UH-pur jee-eye SEE-reez)
X-rays of the esophagus, stomach, and duodenum. The patient swallows
barium first. Barium makes the organs show up on x-rays. Also called barium
Urea Breath Test
(yoo-REE-uh breth test)
A test used to detect Helicobacter pylori infection. The test
measures breath samples for urease, an enzyme H. pylori makes.
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An operation to cut the vagus nerve. This causes the stomach to make
The nerve in the stomach that controls the making of stomach acid.
A fold in the lining of an organ that prevents fluid from flowing backward.
Stretched veins such as those that form in the esophagus from cirrhosis.
A word made from the first letters of a group of birth defects. It is
used when all of these birth defects affect the same child. The birth
Esophageal atresia, and
The tiny, fingerlike projections on the surface of the small intestine.
Villi help absorb nutrients.
Hepatitis caused by a virus. Five different viruses (A, B, C, D, and
E) most commonly cause this form of hepatitis. Other rare viruses may
also cause hepatitis. See Hepatitis.
|Type of Hepatitis
|| Mode of Transmission
- Contaminated food and water.
- Sexual intercourse.
- Sharing infected needles.
- Sexual intercourse.
- Sharing infected needles.
- Must have hepatitis B.
- Found mainly in intravenous drug users.
- Contaminated water from poor sanitation.
A twisting of the stomach or large intestine. May be caused by the stomach
being in the wrong position, a foreign substance, or abnormal joining
of one part of the stomach or intestine to another. Volvulus can lead
to blockage, perforation, peritonitis, and poor blood flow.
The release of stomach contents through the mouth.
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Parallel red sores in the stomach that look like the stripes on a watermelon.
Frequently seen with cirrhosis.
An inherited disorder. Too much copper builds up in the liver and is
slowly released into other parts of the body. The overload can cause severe
liver and brain damage if not treated with medication.
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Dry mouth. The condition can be caused by a number of things, including
rheumatoid arthritis, diabetes, kidney failure, infection with HIV (the
virus that causes AIDS), drugs used to treat depression, and radiation
treatment for mouth or throat cancer.
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(ZEN-kurz dy-vur-TIK- yoo-lum)
Pouches in the esophagus from increased pressure in and around the esophagus.
(ZAH-lun-jur EL-uh-sun sin-drohm)
A group of symptoms that occur when a tumor called a gastrinoma forms
in the pancreas. The tumor, which may cause cancer, releases large amounts
of the hormone gastrin. The gastrin causes too much acid in the duodenum,
resulting in ulcers, bleeding, and perforation.
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